Details for: Yuhup
Language:
Yuhup
Alternative names:
Makú-Yahup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, Yëhup
Dialect of:
People:
Yuhup
Genetic affiliation:
Maku
Region:
Amazonas, Vaupés River tributary. Also in Colombia
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
360 (as of 1995)
Quote:
Limited intelligibility with Hupdë. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave].
- NB. Yuhup of the Amazonas is very distinct from that of Columbia (according to Botma, pc 2010)
Syllable types:
CV, CVC, VC, CVCC, VCC. Botma concludes that the syll template is restricted to CV(V)
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
Restrictions on onset clusters:
Restrictions on single codas:
none
Restrictions on coda clusters:
/CVjC/
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
no
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Voiced non-cont segments surface in oral morphs as pre-nas stops [mb, nd, Ng] in initial position and postnas [bm, dn, gN] in final position. Underlyingly /m,n, N/.
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
no
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
no
Directionality:
Trigger segments class:
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
No NC clusters
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
No NC clusters
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
morpheme
Directionality:
bi-directional
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
nasal morphemes
Trigger segments list:
all
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
sonorants, laryngeals
Target segments list:
m, n, ŋ, w, j, ʔ, h, vowels
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
supralaryngeal obstruents
Transparent segments list:
p, t, k, tʃ
Blockers class:
-
Blockers list:
none
Prenasalization of blockers:
no
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
yes
Commutation level:
morpheme
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
unknown
Stylistic conditions:
other
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
spreading of nasality
Examples of contour segments:
mb, gN
Comments:
- Nasality must be specified on syllabic and subsyllabic levels.(Botma, Strength Relations in Phono)
- Tucano-type harmony. (Botma, PhD dissertation)
Consonant examples:
Oral vowel examples:
Nasal vowel examples:
Stress rule(s):
Falls on the last stem syll of a word (suffixes generally excluded).Vowels often lengthen under main stress.
Stress source(s):
L&P1999:332; Walker 'Prosodic Morphology and a Case of Augmentation'
Remarks:

The nasal roots contain a nasal morpheme, e.g. in the form of a floating feature [nasal]), which links to all nasalizable segments. This includes all voiced sounds or perhaps all sonorants, depending on one's analysis of nasal contours, and on one's assumptions regarding the nasalizability of laryngeals. Voiceless sounds (or, depending on one's analysis, all obstruents) are transparent to nasalization, which explains their occurrence in both oral and nasal roots.

However, the problem with an analysis in terms of morpheme-level nasality is that it fails to account for (6). It is this property that makes Yuhup different from other "transparent" nasal harmony patterns. In my earlier attempt (Botma 2004, in the Leiden Working Papers volume) I tried to relate (6) to syllable structure, but on closer inspection this doesn't seem to be a very good analysis (for reasons given in Botma 2009, in the Strength Relations volume). There I suggest an alternative and possibly better approach: that the nasals are in fact underlyingly present, and denasalize under certain specific circumstances. (In fact, I wouldn't blame you if you decided not to cite the 2004 paper in your database!)

- Botma, pc. 2010
Data provided by:
Affiliation:
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
Secondary source(s):
Comments: