Details for: Tuyuca
Language:
Tuyuca
Alternative names:
Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka, Dojkapuara, Doxká-Poárá, Doka-Poara, Tuiuca
Dialect of:
-
People:
Tuyuca
Genetic affiliation:
Tucanoan > Eastern Tucanoan
Region:
watershed of the Papuri, Inambú and Tiquié rivers in the Columbian department of Vaupés and the Brazilian state of Amazônia
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
500-1000
Quote:
Syllable types:
CV, CVV
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
/g/ and /r/ never occur word-initially
Restrictions on onset clusters:
no clusters
Restrictions on single codas:
Restrictions on coda clusters:
no clusters
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
no
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
no
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
regressive
Trigger segments class:
nasal vowels
Trigger segments list:
ã, ẽ, ɨ̃, ũ, õ, ĩ
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
voiced consonants and h
Target segments list:
b, d, g, r, w, y, h
Conditions on target segments:
Voiced consonants /b, d, g, r, w, j have nasal variants at the same place of articulation [m, n, ɳ, ŋ, ~w, ~j] before nasal vowels.
The /j/ can also surface as ɲ before high nasal vowels.
The [h] also has a nasalized variant that occurs before nasal vowels.
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
morpheme
Directionality:
left to right
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
nasal morphemes
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
When a nasal CV suffix occurs where C is a continuant or a vibrant /r/, the nasalization spreads regressively to the preceding vowel.
Target segments class:
voiced segments
Target segments list:
b, d, g, r, w, j
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
voiceless segments
Transparent segments list:
p, t, k, s, ?h
Blockers class:
underylingly oral segments
Blockers list:
Prenasalization of blockers:
no
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
yes
Commutation level:
morpheme
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
Stylistic conditions:
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
spreading of nasality
Examples of contour segments:
Prenasal variants of /b, d, g/ occur after nasal vowels and before oral vowels: /kĩĩbai/ [kʰĩĩmbaiʰ]
Comments:
Consonant examples:
/pakó/ 'mom'
/bapá/ 'plate'
/wapá/ 'payment'
/botéa/ 'a fish'
/bodé/ 'dragonfly'
/bosé/ 'party'
/boré/ 'whitening'
Oral vowel examples:
/waa/ 'to go'
Nasal vowel examples:
/ãkã/ 'choke on a bone'
/w̃ãã/ 'to illuminate'
Stress rule(s):
There is a H-tone and a L-tone in Tuyuca. The phonological word has one and only one high tone which may occur in any syllable of the word.
Stress source(s):
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Coler [inputted]
Affiliation:
VU Amsterdam
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
no
Data tested in laboratory:
no
Data collected:
from secondary sources
Primary source(s):
Barnes, Janet; Silzer, Sheryl (1976). "Fonología del tuyuca". Sistemas fonológicos de idiomas colombianos (SIL) 3
Secondary source(s):
Comments: