Details for: Tiri
Language:
Tiri
Alternative names:
Ciri, Ha-Tiri, Tirin
Dialect of:
People:
Genetic affiliation:
Australnesian > Malayo-Polynesian > Central-Eastern
Region:
Lower valleys of La Foa in New Caledonia
Latitude:
-21
Longtitude:
165
Number of speakers:
260 (1996)
Quote:
Syllable types:
CV, V, CVV, VV
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
C can be any consonant, but /gw, pw, fw/ occur only after a morpheme boundary
Restrictions on onset clusters:
No clusters
Restrictions on single codas:
No codas
Restrictions on coda clusters:
No coda clusters
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
yes
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
regressive
Trigger segments class:
nasal, prenasalized segment
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
vowel
Target segments list:
all vowels
Conditions on target segments:
In most cases it is hard to tell if a vowel before a trigger is underlyingly nasal or oral... This is just the regressive assimilation of (pre-/)nasal consonants over the preceding vowel
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
Directionality:
right to left
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
prenasalized stops, nasals, vowels
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
Transparent segments list:
vowels
Blockers class:
glides, liquids, fricatives, obstruent stops
Blockers list:
Prenasalization of blockers:
yes
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
no
Commutation level:
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
no
Stylistic conditions:
other
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
voicing enhancement
Examples of contour segments:
Comments:
There are two series of stops, plain and prenasalized, except for /c/, which does not have a prenasalized counterpart. Plain stops are voiceless and pronounced with weak aspiration, or with none at all.
Although Walker considers Tiri to have NH, the linguist who described the language, Osumi, does not. "onsider this Tinrin phenomenon just a phonetic assimilation, and because normally Tinrin has a nasal-oral vowel contrast, i mentioned that in my grammar to point that this contrast gets neutralized before nasal consonants.
(which is different from so -called nasal harmony)."
Anomalous segments:
/c/, a palatal voiceless stop, occurs only rarely. It occurs only before front vowels and the low central vowel /a/. The words in which this phoneme occurs may be borrowings from neighboring languages or from English.
Consonant examples:
/meɣi/ 'be hot'
Oral vowel examples:
/a/ 'to laugh'
/ha/ 'to speak'
/tuu/ 'to bathe'
Nasal vowel examples:
Stress rule(s):
Stress falls generally on the 1st syll of a polysyllabic word. Therefore it often gives a clue to word boundaries and syntactic relationships between parts of an utterance.
Stress source(s):
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Osumi's Tinrin grammar (inputted by Coler)
Affiliation:
Email:
ml.coler at let.vu.nl; nekubunpoo at gmail.com
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
Osumi
Secondary source(s):
Comments: