Details for: Nzerekore Kpelle (Guinean)
Language:
Nzerekore Kpelle (Guinean)
Alternative names:
Dialect of:
Mande > Southwestern Mande > Kpelle
People:
Genetic affiliation:
Region:
central Liberia and adjacent part of Guinea
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
Quote:
Syllable types:
V, CV, CV-V, CVŋ, CVVŋ, CVCV, CVCVŋ, CVCVV
CV-CVVŋ
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
/ɣ/ is not allowed word-intiially; no syllabic-level constraints
Restrictions on onset clusters:
Generally speaking, there are no onset clusters (except for kp, gb, kw, gw which are monophonemic).
Restrictions on single codas:
Consonantal codas are not possible. (final /ŋ/ is vocalic, as it can bear tone).
Restrictions on coda clusters:
The syllable structure in Kpelle depends on the analysis. I would say that syllable is of secondary importance after prodosic foot in Kpelle. The central (basic, nuclear) structure is bisyllabic CVCV. Interestingly, structures such as CVV, CVŋ, CVVŋ on the one hand, and CVCVV, CVCVŋ, CVCVVŋ, on the other, behave as bisyllabic judging by their segmental and tonal distributional properties. Thus syllable structure differs depending on the position
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Except for schwa and /o/. Vocalic nasalization is contrastive after oral consonants other than /l, y, w, ɓ/ (it is rare for nasal vowels to follow this series)
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Except for the palatal nasal
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
yes
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
bi-directional
Trigger segments class:
nasals
Trigger segments list:
m, n ɲ, ŋʷ, ŋ
Conditions on trigger segments:
-
Target segments class:
vowels
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
(1) /VNV/ --> both vowels become nasalized unless /schwa, o/ (2) káŋ [káŋ] (final ŋ does not nasalize when no other nasals in morpheme)
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
morpheme
Directionality:
bi-directional
Valence:
Trigger segments class:
Trigger segments list:
nasal vowels, nasal consonants
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
Transparent segments list:
Blockers class:
obstruents
Blockers list:
fricatives, stops, affricate
Prenasalization of blockers:
Postnasalization of blockers:
Nasal morphemes:
Commutation level:
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
Stylistic conditions:
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
Source of contour segments:
Examples of contour segments:
Comments:
Anomalous segments:
Consonant examples:
zòɣòlò 'caterpillar'
gbánáà 'gun'
Oral vowel examples:
zòɣòlò 'caterpillar'
gbánáà 'gun'
Nasal vowel examples:
kpãã ‘one of the spirit incarnations’,
Stress rule(s):
There is no phonemic stress in Kpelle.
Stress source(s):
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Coler via Maria Konoshenko
Affiliation:
Email:
eleiteria at gmail.com
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
Secondary source(s):
Comments: