Details for: Mundurukú
Language:
Mundurukú
Alternative names:
Caras-Pretas, Monjoroku, Mundurucu, Paiquize, Pari, Weidyenye
Dialect of:
Tupi
People:
Genetic affiliation:
Tupi, Munduruku
Region:
Pará, Amazonas, middle and upper Tapajós and middle Madeira rivers. 22 villages.
Latitude:
-6
Longtitude:
-58
Number of speakers:
10,100 (2002 FUNASA)
Quote:
Coordinates: 7° S, 58° W
Syllable types:
CV, CVC, V, VC
Ambisyllabicity:
yes
Restrictions on single onsets:
May be any one of the 16 consonant phonemes wich contrast as to the manner and point of articulation: (1) voiceless stops /p, t, k, tʃ, k, ʔ/; (2) Voiced stops /b, dʒ/; (3) Fricatives /s, ʃ, h/, (4) nasals /m, n, ŋ/, (5) Sonorants /w, y, r/
Restrictions on onset clusters:
no clusters
Restrictions on single codas:
/tʃ/ restricted to onset; CVj and CVw are considered CVC syllables
Restrictions on coda clusters:
no clusters
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
Nasal contrast on consonants:
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
yes
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
Directionality:
Trigger segments class:
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
etc.
Directionality:
right to left
Valence:
Trigger segments class:
nasal vowel
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
sonorants
Target segments list:
w, j, ʔ, h, r, ĩ i ɨ ɨ̆ e ẽ ə̃ a ã ũ u
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
non-sonorants
Transparent segments list:
Blockers class:
stops and fricatives
Blockers list:
p, b, t, d, tʃ, dʒ, k, s, ʃ
Prenasalization of blockers:
yes
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
no
Commutation level:
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
no
Stylistic conditions:
other
Adjacency conditions:
segment
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
spreading of nasality
Examples of contour segments:
mb, nd
Comments:
- nasality spreads regressively from a nasal vowel to other segments within a word; nonsonorants are opaque
- *[d[nasV]] is generally absent.
- There is an optional prenasalized variant, [mb, nd], that occurs after a nasal vowel
- Prenasalization does not occur in nasal spread. A voiced stop may be prenasalized in a sequence [nasal V-voiced stop], but I consider this to be a coarticulatory effect.
Anomalous segments:
Consonant examples:
Oral vowel examples:
Nasal vowel examples:
Stress rule(s):
Mundurukú is tonal
Stress source(s):
Remarks:
Nasal stops have plain and pre-oralized variants, they are partially oralized syllable-finally following an oral vowel (Picanco dissertation, p74)
Data provided by:
Affiliation:
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
Braun, Ilse & Marjorie Crofts. Mundurukú phonology [SIL]
Secondary source(s):
Comments: