Details for: Mualang
Language:
Mualang
Alternative names:
Dialect of:
People:
Genetic affiliation:
Ibanic
Region:
WESTERN KALIMANTAN. Indonesia
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
40,000
Quote:
Syllable types:
CCVCC, CVC, CCVC, CVCC
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
There are a few cases in which /k/ and /g/ are interchangeable in word-initial position; such words are analyzed as doublets; there are also postploded nasal in syllable-initial position
Restrictions on onset clusters:
(N)©V© in initial syllables, otherwise ©©V©
Restrictions on single codas:
No voiced stops, postploded nasals, and /c/, /ɲ/ occur in word-final position. The glottals /?
/ and /h/ appr mostly word-lly. Of the stops, only /p, t, k/ can occur word-finally, in which position they are always unreleased. The so-called final preploded nasals [pm], [tn], and [kng] occur optionally in the following environment: /CVN/ --> [CVN] ~ [CVCN]
Restrictions on coda clusters:
C(C)VCC very rare, when it does C2 = /?/
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
no
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
progressive
Trigger segments class:
nasals
Trigger segments list:
m', n', ɲ', ng', m. n, ɲ, ng
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
In a cluster nasal - stop, the nasal is always homorganic with the adjacent stop. In other words, the opposition between nasals is neutralized in such environment.
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
etc.
Directionality:
left to right
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
plain nasals
Trigger segments list:
m, n, ng, ny
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
vowels
Target segments list:
I, a, u
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
approximants and glottal fric
Transparent segments list:
w, j, h
Blockers class:
all other consonants
Blockers list:
l, ɟ̰̰̰, g, k, ɣ, d, c, b, m, n, ŋ, ɲ, p, s, t
Prenasalization of blockers:
no
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
no
Commutation level:
segment
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
no
Stylistic conditions:
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
Examples of contour segments:
/tim'ak/ [ti.mbak] 'shoot'
Comments:
When the onset of a syllable is a plain nasal consonant, its nasality spreads progressively over the following vowels, irrespective of syllable boundaries, until blocked by consonants other than /w/, /y/, and /h/. Nasalization may extend to the vowel(s) of a following word, even when the preceding word ends in a glottal stop.
Anomalous segments:
Also: postploded mb {m'} , n {n'}, ɲ {ɲ'}, ng {ng'}
Consonant examples:
/pətaɣa/ [pətaɣa] ~ [pataɣa] ‘deity’
Oral vowel examples:
/pətataw/ [pətataw] ~ [patataw ] 'ridde'
Nasal vowel examples:
/mayuh/ [mãyõh] ‘many, much’
/naŋ/ [nãŋ] 'don't!'
/amaŋ/ [amãŋ] 'I think'
Stress rule(s):
By default, stress is penultimate, but it may shift to ultimate syllables under certain intonational contours. The schwa phoneme never occurs in stressed or final syllables
Stress source(s):
Remarks:
Data provided by:
JOHNNY TJIA [inputted by Coler]
Affiliation:
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
A grammar of Mualang [LOT]
Secondary source(s):
Comments: