Details for: Konkani
Language:
Konkani
Alternative names:
Bankoti, Concorinum, Cugani, Central Konkan, North Konkan, Konkan Standard, Konkanese, Konkani Mangalorean, Kunabi
Dialect of:
People:
Genetic affiliation:
Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Southern zone > Konkani
Region:
North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Also in Canada
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
Quote:
Nasality can spread from a nasal consonant or vowel through regressive assimilation across sonorants and glides through more than one syllable. In many languages, a nasal vowel is followed by a short homogranic nasal consonant before the following consonant. In Konkani this can occur even across a word boundary. Thus, /un̥ɛ͂ kɐr/ ‘decrease’ can sound like [un̥ɛ͂ ŋkɐr].
Syllable types:
CV, V, CVCC, VCC, CVC, VC
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
?
Restrictions on onset clusters:
no clusters
Restrictions on single codas:
?
Restrictions on coda clusters:
?
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
Nasal contrast on consonants:
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
progressive
Trigger segments class:
nasal consonant
Trigger segments list:
mh, nh, ɳ, ɲ, ŋ, m
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
vowel
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
A word final vowel becomes nasal when it is preceded by a nasal consonant. This neutralizes the contrast between an oral vowel and a nasal vowel in the word-final position after a nasal consonant. For example, ordinarily, a class 1 adjective in Konkani ends in an oral vowel in masculine plural and feminine singular and in a nasal vowel in neuter singular and neuter plural. However, in the case of un̥o ‘less’, the masculine plural and the neuter singular both end up the same at the surface and the feminine singular and the neuter plural and the neuter plural forms also end up the same at the surface because of the spread of nasalisation from the nasal consonant to the word-final vowel.
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
etc.
Directionality:
right to left
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
nasal consonant or nasal vowel
Trigger segments list:
mh, nh, ɳ, ɲ, ŋ, m
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
Transparent segments list:
Blockers class:
liquids, fricatives, and obstruent stops
Blockers list:
Prenasalization of blockers:
Postnasalization of blockers:
Nasal morphemes:
no
Commutation level:
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
no
Stylistic conditions:
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
spreading of nasality
Examples of contour segments:
/un̥ɛ͂ kɐr/ [un̥ɛ͂ ŋkɐr] ‘decrease’
Comments:
Segment Inventory:
b
voiced bilabial plosive
  p
voiceless bilabial plosive
 
voiceless aspirated alveolar plosive
  d
voiced alveolar plosive
  t
voiceless alveolar plosive
  ʈ
voiceless retroflex plosive
  ʈʰ
voiceless aspirated retroflex plosive
  ɖ
voiced retroflex plosive
  k
voiceless velar plosive
 
voiceless aspirated velar plosive
  ɡ
voiced velar plosive
  m
voiced bilabial nasal
  n
voiced alveolar nasal
  ɳ
voiced retroflex nasal
  ɲ
voiced palatal nasal
  ŋ
voiced velar nasal
  ts
voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
  tsʰ
voiceless aspirated alveolar sibilant affricate
  dz
voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
  tʃʰ
voiceless aspirated palato-alveolar sibilant affricate
 
voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate
 
voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate
  f
voiceless labio-dental fricative
  v
voiced labio-dental fricative
  s
voiceless alveolar sibilant fricative
  ʃ
voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant fricative
  h
voiceless "h"
  ɾ
voiced alveolar tap
  ɭ
voiced retroflex lateral approximant
  l
voiced alveolar lateral approximant
  j
voiced palatal approximant
  i
high front unrounded vowel
 
nasalized high front unrounded vowel
 
nasalized high back rounded vowel
  u
high back rounded vowel
 
nasalized higher mid front unrounded vowel
  e
higher mid front unrounded vowel
  ə̃
nasalized mid central unrounded vowel
  ə
mid central unrounded vowel
 
nasalized higher mid back rounded vowel
  o
higher mid back rounded vowel
  ɛ̃
nasalized lower mid front unrounded vowel
  ɛ
lower mid front unrounded vowel
  ʌ
lower mid back unrounded vowel
  ʌ̃
nasalized lower mid back unrounded vowel
  ɔ̃
nasalized lower mid back rounded vowel
  ɔ
lower mid back rounded vowel
 
nasalized low central unrounded vowel
  a
low central unrounded vowel
Segment Inventory (glottals):
Anomalous segments:
ALSO: lh, vh, dzh, dZh, bh, dh, retro-dh, gh, mh, nh (according to Almeida 1989: 39)
ə̃ə
Consonant examples:
Oral vowel examples:
tāk 'buttermilk' (dir sing) cf. tā̃k 'ability' (dir sing)
Nasal vowel examples:
Stress rule(s):
Not phonemic, determined according to strong/weak status of syllables in the phonological word.
Stress source(s):
e.g. in bisyllabic words: if both sylls are strong or both are weak, the last syll is stress. If only one is strong, that syllable is stressed
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Affiliation:
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
Primary source(s):
Secondary source(s):
Comments: