Details for: Emerillon
Language:
Emerillon
Alternative names:
Emereñon, Emerilon, Emerion, Mereo, Melejo, Mereyo, Teco
Dialect of:
Tupi-Guaraní (subgroup VIII)
People:
Emerillon
Genetic affiliation:
Tupi > Tupi-Guaraní > subgroup VIII
Region:
Southern border French Guiana, Ouaqui, Camopi and Oiapoque rivers. (None in Brazil.)
Latitude:
2
Longtitude:
-53
Number of speakers:
400 (2001)
Quote:
Wayampi is Émérillon’s closest linguistic relative and geographic neighbor of the southeastern population.
Syllable types:
V, CV, VC, CVC, (*CVV)
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
ɾ, j, g, ə, ɲ (ɾ, ɲ can be found morpheme-initially but not word-initially)
Restrictions on onset clusters:
*[CCV(C)
Restrictions on single codas:
In coda, the voiced non-continuants [b, d, dʒ, g] and the [ɾ] are realized as nonexplosive [p̚, dʒ, k̚, t̚] in oral morphemes (in nasal morphemes they are nasal in all positions).
- Closed syllables are only found in word-final syllables. (underlyingly also in morph-final syllables but morphophonemics usually either simplifies consonant clusters at morpheme boudaries or resylabify the coda in onset position).
Restrictions on coda clusters:
*[(C)VCC
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
there is no nasal phoneme
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
there is no nasal phoneme
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
yes
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
no
Directionality:
Trigger segments class:
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
morpheme
Directionality:
right to left
Valence:
unary
Trigger segments class:
ɲ, m, n, ŋ̥
Trigger segments list:
nasal allophones of oral segments
Conditions on trigger segments:
There is a lenition rule according to which voiced non-continuants in final position are systematically nasalized so morpheme-final consonants are either unreleased or nasalized. Nasality spreads R --> L morpheme-internally.
Target segments class:
vowels, all voiced segments [save z]
Target segments list:
all-vowels, b, d, dʒ, g r, j, w
Conditions on target segments:
- Nasal harmony is spread to a strictly adjacent morpheme within the word.
Transparent segments class:
voiceless stops, continuants, non-obstruents, /z/
Transparent segments list:
p, t, tʃ, k, kʷ, ʔ, s, h, z, w, l, j
Blockers class:
oral morphemes
Blockers list:
oral morphemes
Prenasalization of blockers:
no
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
yes
Commutation level:
morpheme
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
yes
Stylistic conditions:
other
Adjacency conditions:
syllable
Contour segments:
yes
Source of contour segments:
voicing enhancement
Examples of contour segments:
mb, nt
/adudʒa/ [ãndudʒa] ‘mouse’
Comments:
- There is a lenition rule according to which voiced non-continuants in final position are systematically nasalized so morpheme-final consonants are either unreleased or nasalized. The same lenition rule applies exclusively to /b/ and /d/ in intervocalic position, nasalizing them. However, in intervocalic position, the nasalized consonant will be post-oralized:
/adudʒa/ [ãndudʒa] ‘mouse’. The consonants that are phonetically realized as nasals or prenasals, whether in final or intervocalic position, will trigger nasal harmony to their left.
Anomalous segments:
NB. that there is no nasal phoneme -- nasality is a suprasegmental trait.
Consonant examples:
/obosag/ [obosak] ~ [ombosak]
Oral vowel examples:
/zetɨg/ [ zetɨk̚] 'sweet potato'
[zetɨgakom] 'the sweet potatoes'
Nasal vowel examples:
[ãmãn] ‘rain’
[nãs˜ıʔõ] ‘mosquito’,
Stress rule(s):
Stress falls on final heavy (CVC because *CVV) syllable otherwise on the penult, and secondary stress falls on alternating syllables counting backward from the primary stress. One source of exceptions are morphemes that are inherently stressed.
Stress source(s):
Matthew Gordon and Françoise Rose. Émérillon stress: a phonetic and phonological study. Anthropological Linguistics Vol. 48, No. 2 (Summer, 2006), pp. 132-168.
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Coler
Affiliation:
VU Amsterdam
Email:
ml.coler at let.vu.nl
Data based on acoustic evidence:
yes
Data tested in laboratory:
no
Data collected:
both
Primary source(s):
1. Rose, Françoise. MORPHOSYNTAXE DE L'EMERILLON. PhD dissertation.
2. Rose, Françoise. A typological overview of Emerillon. Linguistic Typology 12 (2008), 431–460.
Secondary source(s):
1. Matthew Gordon and Françoise Rose. Émérillon stress: a phonetic and phonological study. Anthropological Linguistics
Vol. 48, No. 2 (Summer, 2006), pp. 132-168.
Comments:
Data entered with direct input from Françoise Rose."
"Epena