Details for: Cubeo
Language:
Cubeo
Alternative names:
Cuveo, Hehanawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Pamiwa
Dialect of:
People:
Cubeo
Genetic affiliation:
Tucanoan > Central Tucanoan
Region:
Vaupés region, Vaupés, Cuduyari, Querarií rivers and tributaries. Also: Brazil
Latitude:
0
Longtitude:
0
Number of speakers:
6800 [2001]
Quote:
Nasality spreads rightward from the nasal vowel, nasalizing all oral vowels within a word provided they are not nasal and that all intervening consonants are nasalizable (/b, d, j, w, x, r/). Moreover, most morphemes are classifiable as nasal, oral, or unmarked -- though some seem to be both oral/nasal.

there are suffixes which contain only nasalizable phonemes, but which do not undergo nasal spreading. We illustrate this with the -wa "accustomed aspect" in ex. (23), contrasting it with the phonemically identical causative suffix (ex. (22)), which does undergo nasal spreading (ex. (22)). The classifiers listed under '2' on pg. 7 are also like this: while they contain only nasalizable phonemes, they are inherently oral, i.e. they do not undergo nasal spreading. I think that's crucial information for anyone who would want to use this database to test their theory
Syllable types:
CV, V
Ambisyllabicity:
Restrictions on single onsets:
Restrictions on onset clusters:
no clusters
Restrictions on single codas:
no codas
Restrictions on coda clusters:
no clusters
Voiced-voiceless stop contrast:
yes
Nasal contrast on consonants:
yes
Nasal-voiced stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiced stop contrast restrictions:
no nasals in phonetic inventory
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast:
no
Nasal-voiceless stop contrast restrictions:
no nasals in phonetic inventory
Nasal-oral vowel contrast:
yes
Nasal-oral vowel contrast restrictions:
Nasal assimilation:
yes
Directionality:
progressive
Trigger segments class:
Trigger segments list:
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
Target segments list:
Conditions on target segments:
Nasal harmony:
yes
Domain of spreading:
morpheme
Directionality:
left to right
Valence:
binary
Trigger segments class:
nasal vowel
Trigger segments list:
ã, ɛ̃, ɨ̃, ũ, õ, ĩ
Conditions on trigger segments:
Target segments class:
vowels, nasalizable consonants
Target segments list:
a, ɛ, ɨ, i, o, u, b, d, j, w, x, r
Conditions on target segments:
Transparent segments class:
none
Transparent segments list:
Blockers class:
non-nasalizable stops
Blockers list:
k, p, t, tʃ
Prenasalization of blockers:
yes
Postnasalization of blockers:
no
Nasal morphemes:
yes
Commutation level:
Spreading source:
Floating nasal:
Stylistic conditions:
Adjacency conditions:
Contour segments:
no
Source of contour segments:
spreading of nasality
Examples of contour segments:
/p/ and /t/ are prenasalized in certain restricted environments (pg 4), while /k/ and (maybe) /tʃ/ do not.
Comments:
1. Walker has listed Cubeo as a language without blockers, though this is not the case.
2. An equally possible analysis is that the nasality does not originate on phonemes, but is associated with morphemes on a separate phonological tier. That position would run into problems wrt the roots and suffixes we mention which appear synchronically to be monomorphemic, but are partly oral and partly nasal (pg. 7-8). However, one could divide these roots and
suffixes into pseudo-morphemes (the are all, I think, bisyllabic, whereas most morphemes in Cubeo are monosyllabic).
3. suffixes (but not roots) have a three-way distinction among nasal, oral, and nasalizable
Anomalous segments:
Consonant examples:
dĩ-bI-ko
/dĩ-bĩ-ko/
[nĩmĩko]
'She recently went.'
Oral vowel examples:
bu-bI-ko
/bu'e-bi-ko/
[bu'ebiko]
'She recently studied.'
Nasal vowel examples:
dĩ-bI-ko
/dĩ-bĩ-ko/
[nĩmĩko]
'She recently went.'
Stress rule(s):
The stressed syllable is the first syllable with high tone in the phonological word (usually the second syllable of the word). Stress (and by extension, the position of the first high-tone syllable) is contrastive.
Stress source(s):
Morse & Maxwell. 1999. Gramatical del Cubeo. SIL. P6
Remarks:
Data provided by:
Coler
Affiliation:
Email:
Data based on acoustic evidence:
Data tested in laboratory:
Data collected:
from secondary sources
Primary source(s):
Morse & Maxwell. 1999. Gramatical del Cubeo. SIL.
Secondary source(s):
Comments: